Gene Role Disease OMIM Descriptions Sources
SRY causing SRXY1 400044 The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. A condition characterized by male-to-female sex reversal in the presence of a normal 46,XY karyotype. Patients manifest rapid and early degeneration of their gonads, which are present in the adult as 'streak gonads', consisting mainly of fibrous tissue and variable amounts of ovarian stroma. As a result these patients do not develop secondary sexual characteristics at puberty. The external genitalia in these subjects are completely female, and Muellerian structures are normal. [read more] 11563911
STRA6 causing MCOPS9 601186 The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. A rare clinical entity including as main characteristics anophthalmia or severe microphthalmia, and pulmonary hypoplasia or aplasia. Microphthalmia is a disorder of eye formation, ranging from small size of a single eye to complete bilateral absence of ocular tissues (anophthalmia). In many cases, microphthalmia/anophthalmia occurs in association with syndromes that include non-ocular abnormalities. [read more] 17273977
STX16 pathogenesis PHP1B 603233 The gene represented in this entry is involved in disease pathogenesis. Microdeletions involving STX16 can cause loss of methylation at exon A/B of GNAS, resulting in PHP1B. A disorder characterized by end-organ resistance to parathyroid hormone, hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. Patients affected with PHP1B lack developmental defects characteristic of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, and typically show no other endocrine abnormalities besides resistance to PTH. [read more] 14561710
TBX1 Haploinsufficiency of the TBX1 gene is responsible for most of the physical malformations present in DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). DGS is characterized by the association of several malformations: hypoplastic thymus and parathyroid glands, congenital conotruncal cardiopathy, and a subtle but characteristic facial dysmorphology. VCFS is marked by the association of congenital conotruncal heart defects, cleft palate or velar insufficiency, facial dysmorpholgy and learning difficulties. It is now accepted that these two syndromes represent two forms of clinical expression of the same entity manifesting at different stages of life. [read more] 14585638
TBX1 causing DGS 188400 The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. A congenital syndrome characterized by a wide spectrum of characteristics including parathyroid hypoplasia resulting in hypocalcemia, thymic hypoplasia resulting in T-cell immunodeficiency, defects in the outflow tract of the heart, and craniofacial anomalies. Disturbance of cervical neural crest migration into the derivatives of the pharyngeal arches and pouches can account for the phenotype. [read more] 14585638
TBX1 causing VCFS 192430 The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. A syndrome characterized by abnormal pharyngeal arch development that results in defective development of the parathyroid glands, thymus, and conotruncal region of the heart. The phenotype is highly variable, with no single clinical feature present in every patient. Affected individuals may present with structural or functional palatal abnormalities, cardiac defects, unique facial characteristics, hypernasal speech, hypotonia, and defective thymic development associated with impaired immune function. In addition, affected individuals may present with learning disabilities, overt developmental delay, and psychiatric disorders. [read more] 17273972
TCF7L2 Constitutive activation and subsequent transactivation of target genes may lead to the maintenance of stem-cell characteristics (cycling and longevity) in cells that should normally undergo terminal differentiation and constitute the primary transforming event in colorectal cancer (CRC). [read more]
TP63 causing EDRH 129400 The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. A form of ectodermal dysplasia, a heterogeneous group of disorders due to abnormal development of two or more ectodermal structures. Characterized by the combination of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip, and cleft palate. The clinical syndrome is comprised of a characteristic facies (narrow nose and small mouth), wiry, slow-growing, and uncombable hair, sparse eyelashes and eyebrows, obstructed lacrimal puncta/epiphora, bilateral stenosis of external auditory canals, microsomia, hypodontia, cone-shaped incisors, enamel hypoplasia, dystrophic nails, and cleft lip/cleft palate. [read more] 12939657
TRIM37 causing MUL 253250 The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. Autosomal recessive disorder that involves several tissues of mesodermal origin, implying a defect in a highly pleiotropic gene. Characteristic features include severe growth failure of prenatal onset and constrictive pericardium with consequent hepatomegaly. In addition, muscle hypotonia, J-shaped sella turcica, yellowish dots in the ocular fundi, typical dysmorphic features and hypoplasia of various endocrine glands causing hormonal deficiency are common. [read more] 15885686
TWIST1 causing RSS 180750 The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. An autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by craniosynostosis, asymmetry of orbits, flat face, hypertelorism, a thin, long, and pointed nose, shallow orbits, strabismus, and broad great toes with a duplication of the distal phalanx. RSS is clinically similar to Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, with the most characteristic additional feature in Robinow-Sorauf syndrome being a bifid or partially duplicated hallux. [read more]